Zend Framework教程之动作的基类Zend_Controller_Action详解

 更新时间:2016年03月07日 10:24:02   作者:coder   我要评论
这篇文章主要介绍了Zend Framework教程之动作的基类Zend_Controller_Action的用法,结合实例形式详细分析了动作的基类Zend_Controller_Action具体功能,使用方法与相关注意事项,需要的朋友可以参考下

本文实例讲述了Zend Framework教程之动作的基类Zend_Controller_Action。分享给大家供大家参考,具体如下:

Zend_Controller_Action的实现

Zend Framework的动作控制器需要继承Zend_Controller_Action,Zend_Controller_Action提供了动作控制器的基本功能,具体参考如下代码:

Zend_Controller_Action_Interface

<?php
interface Zend_Controller_Action_Interface
{
  /**
   * Class constructor
   *
   * The request and response objects should be registered with the
   * controller, as should be any additional optional arguments; these will be
   * available via {@link getRequest()}, {@link getResponse()}, and
   * {@link getInvokeArgs()}, respectively.
   *
   * When overriding the constructor, please consider this usage as a best
   * practice and ensure that each is registered appropriately; the easiest
   * way to do so is to simply call parent::__construct($request, $response,
   * $invokeArgs).
   *
   * After the request, response, and invokeArgs are set, the
   * {@link $_helper helper broker} is initialized.
   *
   * Finally, {@link init()} is called as the final action of
   * instantiation, and may be safely overridden to perform initialization
   * tasks; as a general rule, override {@link init()} instead of the
   * constructor to customize an action controller's instantiation.
   *
   * @param Zend_Controller_Request_Abstract $request
   * @param Zend_Controller_Response_Abstract $response
   * @param array $invokeArgs Any additional invocation arguments
   * @return void
   */
  public function __construct(Zend_Controller_Request_Abstract $request,
                Zend_Controller_Response_Abstract $response,
                array $invokeArgs = array());
  /**
   * Dispatch the requested action
   *
   * @param string $action Method name of action
   * @return void
   */
  public function dispatch($action);
}

Zend_Controller_Action

<?php
require_once 'Zend/Controller/Action/HelperBroker.php';
require_once 'Zend/Controller/Action/Interface.php';
require_once 'Zend/Controller/Front.php';
abstract class Zend_Controller_Action implements Zend_Controller_Action_Interface
{
  protected $_classMethods;
  protected $_delimiters;
  protected $_invokeArgs = array();
  protected $_frontController;
  protected $_request = null;
  protected $_response = null;
  public $viewSuffix = 'phtml';
  public $view;
  protected $_helper = null;
  public function __construct(Zend_Controller_Request_Abstract $request, Zend_Controller_Response_Abstract $response, array $invokeArgs = array())
  {
    $this->setRequest($request)
       ->setResponse($response)
       ->_setInvokeArgs($invokeArgs);
    $this->_helper = new Zend_Controller_Action_HelperBroker($this);
    $this->init();
  }
  public function init()
  {
  }
  public function initView()
  {
    if (!$this->getInvokeArg('noViewRenderer') && $this->_helper->hasHelper('viewRenderer')) {
      return $this->view;
    }
    require_once 'Zend/View/Interface.php';
    if (isset($this->view) && ($this->view instanceof Zend_View_Interface)) {
      return $this->view;
    }
    $request = $this->getRequest();
    $module = $request->getModuleName();
    $dirs  = $this->getFrontController()->getControllerDirectory();
    if (empty($module) || !isset($dirs[$module])) {
      $module = $this->getFrontController()->getDispatcher()->getDefaultModule();
    }
    $baseDir = dirname($dirs[$module]) . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . 'views';
    if (!file_exists($baseDir) || !is_dir($baseDir)) {
      require_once 'Zend/Controller/Exception.php';
      throw new Zend_Controller_Exception('Missing base view directory ("' . $baseDir . '")');
    }
    require_once 'Zend/View.php';
    $this->view = new Zend_View(array('basePath' => $baseDir));
    return $this->view;
  }
  public function render($action = null, $name = null, $noController = false)
  {
    if (!$this->getInvokeArg('noViewRenderer') && $this->_helper->hasHelper('viewRenderer')) {
      return $this->_helper->viewRenderer->render($action, $name, $noController);
    }
    $view  = $this->initView();
    $script = $this->getViewScript($action, $noController);
    $this->getResponse()->appendBody(
      $view->render($script),
      $name
    );
  }
  public function renderScript($script, $name = null)
  {
    if (!$this->getInvokeArg('noViewRenderer') && $this->_helper->hasHelper('viewRenderer')) {
      return $this->_helper->viewRenderer->renderScript($script, $name);
    }
    $view = $this->initView();
    $this->getResponse()->appendBody(
      $view->render($script),
      $name
    );
  }
  public function getViewScript($action = null, $noController = null)
  {
    if (!$this->getInvokeArg('noViewRenderer') && $this->_helper->hasHelper('viewRenderer')) {
      $viewRenderer = $this->_helper->getHelper('viewRenderer');
      if (null !== $noController) {
        $viewRenderer->setNoController($noController);
      }
      return $viewRenderer->getViewScript($action);
    }
    $request = $this->getRequest();
    if (null === $action) {
      $action = $request->getActionName();
    } elseif (!is_string($action)) {
      require_once 'Zend/Controller/Exception.php';
      throw new Zend_Controller_Exception('Invalid action specifier for view render');
    }
    if (null === $this->_delimiters) {
      $dispatcher = Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance()->getDispatcher();
      $wordDelimiters = $dispatcher->getWordDelimiter();
      $pathDelimiters = $dispatcher->getPathDelimiter();
      $this->_delimiters = array_unique(array_merge($wordDelimiters, (array) $pathDelimiters));
    }
    $action = str_replace($this->_delimiters, '-', $action);
    $script = $action . '.' . $this->viewSuffix;
    if (!$noController) {
      $controller = $request->getControllerName();
      $controller = str_replace($this->_delimiters, '-', $controller);
      $script = $controller . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . $script;
    }
    return $script;
  }
  public function getRequest()
  {
    return $this->_request;
  }
  public function setRequest(Zend_Controller_Request_Abstract $request)
  {
    $this->_request = $request;
    return $this;
  }
  public function getResponse()
  {
    return $this->_response;
  }
  public function setResponse(Zend_Controller_Response_Abstract $response)
  {
    $this->_response = $response;
    return $this;
  }
  protected function _setInvokeArgs(array $args = array())
  {
    $this->_invokeArgs = $args;
    return $this;
  }
  public function getInvokeArgs()
  {
    return $this->_invokeArgs;
  }
  public function getInvokeArg($key)
  {
    if (isset($this->_invokeArgs[$key])) {
      return $this->_invokeArgs[$key];
    }
    return null;
  }
  public function getHelper($helperName)
  {
    return $this->_helper->{$helperName};
  }
  public function getHelperCopy($helperName)
  {
    return clone $this->_helper->{$helperName};
  }
  public function setFrontController(Zend_Controller_Front $front)
  {
    $this->_frontController = $front;
    return $this;
  }
  public function getFrontController()
  {
    // Used cache version if found
    if (null !== $this->_frontController) {
      return $this->_frontController;
    }
    // Grab singleton instance, if class has been loaded
    if (class_exists('Zend_Controller_Front')) {
      $this->_frontController = Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance();
      return $this->_frontController;
    }
    // Throw exception in all other cases
    require_once 'Zend/Controller/Exception.php';
    throw new Zend_Controller_Exception('Front controller class has not been loaded');
  }
  public function preDispatch()
  {
  }
  public function postDispatch()
  {
  }
  public function __call($methodName, $args)
  {
    require_once 'Zend/Controller/Action/Exception.php';
    if ('Action' == substr($methodName, -6)) {
      $action = substr($methodName, 0, strlen($methodName) - 6);
      throw new Zend_Controller_Action_Exception(sprintf('Action "%s" does not exist and was not trapped in __call()', $action), 404);
    }
    throw new Zend_Controller_Action_Exception(sprintf('Method "%s" does not exist and was not trapped in __call()', $methodName), 500);
  }
  public function dispatch($action)
  {
    // Notify helpers of action preDispatch state
    $this->_helper->notifyPreDispatch();
    $this->preDispatch();
    if ($this->getRequest()->isDispatched()) {
      if (null === $this->_classMethods) {
        $this->_classMethods = get_class_methods($this);
      }
      // If pre-dispatch hooks introduced a redirect then stop dispatch
      // @see ZF-7496
      if (!($this->getResponse()->isRedirect())) {
        // preDispatch() didn't change the action, so we can continue
        if ($this->getInvokeArg('useCaseSensitiveActions') || in_array($action, $this->_classMethods)) {
          if ($this->getInvokeArg('useCaseSensitiveActions')) {
            trigger_error('Using case sensitive actions without word separators is deprecated; please do not rely on this "feature"');
          }
          $this->$action();
        } else {
          $this->__call($action, array());
        }
      }
      $this->postDispatch();
    }
    // whats actually important here is that this action controller is
    // shutting down, regardless of dispatching; notify the helpers of this
    // state
    $this->_helper->notifyPostDispatch();
  }
  public function run(Zend_Controller_Request_Abstract $request = null, Zend_Controller_Response_Abstract $response = null)
  {
    if (null !== $request) {
      $this->setRequest($request);
    } else {
      $request = $this->getRequest();
    }
    if (null !== $response) {
      $this->setResponse($response);
    }
    $action = $request->getActionName();
    if (empty($action)) {
      $action = 'index';
    }
    $action = $action . 'Action';
    $request->setDispatched(true);
    $this->dispatch($action);
    return $this->getResponse();
  }
  protected function _getParam($paramName, $default = null)
  {
    $value = $this->getRequest()->getParam($paramName);
     if ((null === $value || '' === $value) && (null !== $default)) {
      $value = $default;
    }
    return $value;
  }
  protected function _setParam($paramName, $value)
  {
    $this->getRequest()->setParam($paramName, $value);
    return $this;
  }
  protected function _hasParam($paramName)
  {
    return null !== $this->getRequest()->getParam($paramName);
  }
  protected function _getAllParams()
  {
    return $this->getRequest()->getParams();
  }
  final protected function _forward($action, $controller = null, $module = null, array $params = null)
  {
    $request = $this->getRequest();
    if (null !== $params) {
      $request->setParams($params);
    }
    if (null !== $controller) {
      $request->setControllerName($controller);
      // Module should only be reset if controller has been specified
      if (null !== $module) {
        $request->setModuleName($module);
      }
    }
    $request->setActionName($action)
        ->setDispatched(false);
  }
  protected function _redirect($url, array $options = array())
  {
    $this->_helper->redirector->gotoUrl($url, $options);
  }
}

Zend_Controller_Action提供了动作和视图的render功能,以及注册请求和响应对象,常用助手等等。

动作控制器的常用方法

在动作控制器中常用的方法和属性如下:

$this->_helper主要完成助手的相关操作例如:

// 只是局部控制器;当初始化加载时,对这个控制器的所有动作有效:
$this->_helper->viewRenderer->setNoRender(true);
// 全局:
$this->_helper->removeHelper('viewRenderer');
 // 也是全局,但需要和本地版本协作,以便繁殖这个控制器:
Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance()->setParam('noViewRenderer', true);

通过设置ViewRenderer的noRender标记,可以简单地为一个独立的视图禁止解析(rendering):

class FooController extends Zend_Controller_Action
{
  public function barAction()
  {
    // disable autorendering for this action only:
    $this->_helper->viewRenderer->setNoRender();
  }
}

禁止ViewRenderer的主要原因是如果你不需要视图对象或者如果你不通过视图脚本(例如,当使用动作控制器来司服网站服务协议如SOAP,XML-RPC或REST)来解析。大多数情况下,你不需要全局地禁止ViewRenderer,只选择性地在个别控制器或动作里禁止它。

请求对象和响应对象的相关操作

无数的对象和变量与对象一起注册,并且每个都有访问器方法。

请求对象:getRequest()可用来读取调用动作请求对象。

响应对象: getResponse()可用来读取收集最终响应的响应对象。一些典型的调用看起来象这样:

$this->getResponse()->setHeader('Content-Type', 'text/xml');
$this->getResponse()->appendBody($content);

调用参数:前端控制器可能把参数传给路由器、派遣器和动作控制器。为了读取这些参数,可使用getInvokeArg($key);另外,用getInvokeArgs()读取整个参数列表。

请求参数:请求对象手机请求参数,如任何_GET 或 _POST 参数,或者指定在URL的路径信息里的用户参数。为了读取这些参数,可使用_getParam($key)或_getAllParams()。也可以用_setParam()来设置请求参数;当转发到另外的动作时这很有用。

用_hasParam($key)来测试是否一个参数存在(对逻辑分支有用)。

Note: _getParam()可带有一个可选的第二个参数,如果它不是空的,就包含一个缺省的值。用它在读取值之前来消除对_hasParam() 的调用:

// Use default value of 1 if id is not set
$id = $this->_getParam('id', 1);
// Instead of:
if ($this->_hasParam('id') {
  $id = $this->_getParam('id');
} else {
  $id = 1;
}

视图的相关操作

Zend_Controller_Action为视图继承提供了一个初步的灵活的机制。有两个方法来完成这个:initView() 和 render();前者松散地加载$view public 属性,后者基于当前请求的动作来解析视图,它们使用目录层次来决定脚本路径。

视图初始化

initView()初始化视图对象。为了读取视图对象,render()调用initView(),但它可以在任何时候被初始化;缺省地,它用Zend_View对象来组装$view属性,但任何实现Zend_View_Interface的类可以使用。如果$view已经被初始化,它就简单地返回属性。

缺省的实现使用下面假设的目录结构:

applicationOrModule/
    controllers/
        IndexController.php
    views/
        scripts/
            index/
                index.phtml
        helpers/
        filters/

换句话说,视图脚本假定放在views/scripts/子目录,同时假定 views子目录还包含兄弟功能(助手和过滤器)。确定视图脚本名称和路径时,先以 views/scripts/作为基路径,然后加上以视图脚本对应控制器命名的目录。

解析(Rendering)视图

render() 有下列特征:has the following signature:

string render(string $action = null,
       string $name = null,
       bool $noController = false);

render()解析视图脚本。如果没有传递参数,它假定请求的脚本是[controller]/[action].phtml (.phtml是$viewSuffix属性的值)。为$action传递一个值将解析在[controller]子目录中的模板。为用[controller]重写,传递一个true值给$noController。最后,模板被解析到响应对象;如果你希望解析到一个在响应对象里指定的named segment,传递一个值给$name。

Note: 因为控制器和动作名字里可能包含分隔符如'_'、 '.' 和 '-',当决定视图名字时,render()把它们规格化成 '-'.在内部,它使用派遣器的字和路径分隔符来做规格化。这样,对/foo.bar/baz-bat的请求将解析脚本foo-bar/baz-bat.phtml。如果动作方法包含camelCasing,记住当决定视图脚本文件名的时候,这将变成由'-'分隔的字。

一些例子:

class MyController extends Zend_Controller_Action
{
  public function fooAction()
  {
    // Renders my/foo.phtml
    $this->render();
    // Renders my/bar.phtml
    $this->render('bar');
    // Renders baz.phtml
    $this->render('baz', null, true);
    // Renders my/login.phtml to the 'form' segment of the
    // response object
    $this->render('login', 'form');
    // Renders site.phtml to the 'page' segment of the response
    // object; does not use the 'my/' subirectory
    $this->render('site', 'page', true);
  }
  public function bazBatAction()
  {
    // Renders my/baz-bat.phtml
    $this->render();
  }
}

其它

_forward($action, $controller = null, $module = null, array $params = null) :执行另外一个动作。如果在preDispatch()里调用,当前请求的动作将被跳过来支持新的动作。否则,在当前动作被处理之后,在_forward()请求的动作将被执行。

_redirect($url, array $options = array()):重定向到另外一个地方。这个方法用URL和一组可选的选项。缺省地,它执行HTTP 302 重定向。

选项可包括一个或多个下面这些:

exit:是否立即退出。如果被请求,它将干净地关闭任何打开的会话和执行重定向。

可以用setRedirectExit()访问器在控制器里全局地设置这个选项。

prependBase:是否预先考虑基础URL和URL提供的请求对象一起注册。

使用setRedirectPrependBase()访问器,在控制器里全局地设置这个选项。

code:在重定向时要用什么HTTP代码。缺省使用302;可以用从301到306之间的任何代码。

使用setRedirectCode()访问器,在控制器里全局地设置这个选项。

扩展自定义Zend_Controller_Action

为了创建动作控制器,设计上,Zend_Controller_Action 必须被继承。至少,需要定义控制器可能调用的动作方法。

除了为web应用程序创建有用的函数外,你可能发现在不同的控制器里重复同样的设置和实用方法;如果这样,创建一个继承(extends)Zend_Controller_Action 的基础类可能会解决问题。

Example #1 如何处理不存在的动作

如果控制器的请求包括一个未定义的动作方法,Zend_Controller_Action::__call()将被调用。__call()当然是PHP中用来重载方法的魔术方法。

缺省地,这个方法抛出一个Zend_Controller_Action_Exception 来表明在控制器里没有发现要求的方法。如果要求的方法以'Action'结尾,就假设一个动作被请求并且不存在;这样的错误导致带有代码为 404 的异常。所有其它方法导致带有代码为 500 的异常。这使你很容易地在错误句柄里区分是页面没有发现还是程序错误。

如果想执行其它操作,你应该重写这个函数。例如,如果你想显示错误信息,可以象下面这样来写:

class MyController extends Zend_Controller_Action
{
  public function __call($method, $args)
  {
    if ('Action' == substr($method, -6)) {
      // If the action method was not found, render the error
      // template
      return $this->render('error');
    }
    // all other methods throw an exception
    throw new Exception('Invalid method "'
              . $method
              . '" called',
              500);
  }
}

另外的可能性就是你可能想转发到缺省控制页面:

class MyController extends Zend_Controller_Action
{
  public function indexAction()
  {
    $this->render();
  }
  public function __call($method, $args)
  {
    if ('Action' == substr($method, -6)) {
      // If the action method was not found, forward to the
      // index action
      return $this->_forward('index');
    }
    // all other methods throw an exception
    throw new Exception('Invalid method "'
              . $method
              . '" called',
              500);
  }
}

为了定制控制器,除了重写__call()以外,本章前面说涉及的初始化、实用程序、访问器、视图和派遣钩子等方法都可以被重写。作为例子,如果把视图对象保存到注册表里,你可能想用象下面的代码来修改initView():

abstract class My_Base_Controller extends Zend_Controller_Action
{
  public function initView()
  {
    if (null === $this->view) {
      if (Zend_Registry::isRegistered('view')) {
        $this->view = Zend_Registry::get('view');
      } else {
        $this->view = new Zend_View();
        $this->view->setBasePath(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../views');
      }
    }
    return $this->view;
  }
}

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